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Anti-arrhythmic drugs in Ayurveda

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Anti-arrhythmic drugs in Ayurveda

Post by Admin on Sat 06 Nov 2010, 11:35 pm

Anti-arrhythmic drugs in Ayurveda

This category of drugs has the tendency to regulate the abnormalities in the heart rate. It is known fact that the heart pumps blood through out our body. Involuntary muscles of heart keeps on working even we are working, sleeping or sitting. Heart beats are produced due to the expansion and contractions of the heart muscles. in normal condition heart beats are 60 to 80 times in a minute. Pace maker is the powerhouse of the heart that is responsible for controlling the heart beat. The pace maker sends electric vibrations to different parts of heart for proper working.

These electric signals are developed in the Sino Articular node located at the upper part of right atrium. The controlled mechanism of these electric signals and other involuntary muscles leads in a rhythmic expansion and contraction in the heart that is known to be the heart beat (characterized by lub and dub sign). Any type of irregularity in heart's natural rhythm due to any reason is called an arrhythmia. This unhealthy condition of irregular heart beat or Arrhythmias is divided into two partsVentricular Supra-ventricular. When the ventricles are supposed to flicker the Ventricular arrhythmias occurs. On the other hand when the atria or the upper chambers are flickering irregularly Supra-ventricular arrhythmias occur. Further, the Arrhythmias are subdivided by the speed of the heartbeats. Following are the three conditions for Arrhythmias The very slow heart rate is called bradycardia. In bradycardia the heart rate is less than 60 beats per minute. Second condition is tachycardia, which means increased heart rate. In this condition the heartbeats are more than 100 beats per minute. The most difficult of the arrhythmia is fibrillation. In this condition the heartbeats are uncoordinated, that means the expansion and contractions of individual heart-muscle fibers are independent from each other. There are various causes for arrhythmia. It can be congenital, due to pathological conditions, different cardiac diseases, hypertension, stress, smoking and alcohol. Some medicines also affect the heart beat pattern. Following are the symptoms of the arrhythmic conditions.

In bradycardia the patient feel tired, short of breath, dizziness, or some times he faints. The patient with tachycardia has a feeling of strong pulse in his neck, and fluttering, racing beat in his chest. He feels discomfort, weak, short of breath, sweaty, or dizzy. In ayurveda the arrhythmic conditions are mot much described, they are covered in the topic "Hridya gata roga" means a topic related to cardiac disease. In modern sciences the anti-arrhythmic medicines are belonging to digitalis, beta-blockers, potassium and calcium channel blocker. In complicated cases the surgical intervention is required. The surgery and implantation are required as last stage of treatment. Those drugs, which work by blocking the impulses, that may cause an irregular heart rhythm and by interfering with hormonal influences (such as adrenaline) on the heart's cells are called beta-blockers. They also maintains blood pressure and heart rate. Propranolol, metoprolol, and atenolol are examples of beta-blocker drugs. The sodium-channel blockers are also helpful. Theyhave a tendency to slow down the electrical conduction in the heart. Quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide, flecainide, propafenone, tocainide, and mexiletine are some of the examples. The medicines that slow down the electric impulses in the heart by blocking the its potassium channels are called potassium channel blockers. Amiodarone, sotalol, and dofetilide are some of the examples of potassium blockers. Those categories of medicine that are blocking the calcium channels in the heart are called the calcium channel blockers. Diltiazem and verapamil are few of its example.The digitalis category drugs are rarely used now.The anti-arrhythmic drugs must be used very carefully and should be taken under strict medical observation as some times the conditions of a patient may get worsen due to these medicine. This condition is known as pro-arrhythmia. Ayurveda describes the cardiac drugs as "Hridya". This category of drugs contains many medicines and herbs. Following are the main drugs and medicines used as anti-arrhythymic drugs. Hritapatri, ajamoda, lata kasturi, parushaka, draksha, katphala, dadim, rajadan, triphala, shakaphala, Amra, lakucha, amlavetas, badar, matulung and karmarda these are the cardiac tonics. Apart from these herbs, there are certain drugs that increase the contraction and expansion without increasing the heartbeat. In ayurveda a class of drug is having the effect to strengthen the cardiac muscles they are jaharmohara and kaharva. Those medicines that have madhur (sweet) and amla (acidic) taste. There are a number of preparations that can be used as cardiac tonics. These mineral preparations are lauha bhasma, abhraka bhasma, swarna bhasma, vacha, arjun, lajawarta, and praval. The combination choorna that are used in this disease are – Pippalyadi choorna, hingavadi choorna, mrigashringa choorna, nagabala choorna, kakubhadi choorna, pushkaramuladi choorna The ghee based preparations like Arjuna ghrita, baladhya ghrita, madhuka, mahameda, shalparni. Medicated milk arjun ksheer paak. The decoction of devadaru, vacha, yavani palash, shunthi, abhya, udambur are also very helpful. Arjunarishta, balarishta and ikshurasa are used. All these medicines have direct and parental effect on the arrhythmic conditions. These medicines have tendencies to effect the heart rate as well as soothes the effect on the muscles of heart. Recent studies about garlic as anti arrhythmic drug shows that it has higher dehress of sulphur compounds. Garlic has anti-arrhythymic properties to reduce both types of arrhythmias. Though the mode of action is not defined the effects are observed. The ayurvedic medicines can be divided into-

In condition of Hridya daurabalya (Cardiac weakness) Nagarjunabhra Rasa, Muktapisti, Jwahar Mohra and Arjunarishta are very effective. In Rakta Chap (Hypertension), Yogendra Rasa is considered the best.In Raktabhar Alpta (Hypo tension), Makaradhvaja gutika, Kasturi bhairav Rasa are quite beneficial.In Hritshoola (Angina), Sringa Bhasma, Mahavat Raj Rasa. There are rasa-based medicines like kalyan sundaer rasa, chintamani rasa, haridyarnava rasa, panchanana rasa, and prabhakar vati are commonly used. Modern sciences the following medicines to be cardiac tonic- Arjuna (Terminalia arjuna) Kushtha
(Saussurea lappa) Bala (Sida cordifolia) Hatapatri (Digitalis purpurea Foxglove) Rasona, (Garlic Allium sativum), Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) The very basic preventive method against this disease is to use a garlic, pomegranate, Arjuna powder, and avoid smoking alcohol.


Antibacterial drugs in Ayurveda
The anti bacterial agents and drugs are of the most important inventions in medical field. As we know that the antibiotics are used to fight any type of infections that are due to bacteria. The antibiotics are the base for the improvement and development of the surgery part of allopathic medicines. There are various medicated liquids and powders derived form minerals as well as the herbs for this purpose in ayurveda. In the surgical text Susruta there are various medicines and processes that are used for postoperative treatment. Thought, ayurveda don't describe any thing about the antibiotic drugs but they were quite aware of the after effects that may occur due to the microbes. Thus various processes and drugs were used for the antibiotic purpose. Without this the surgical part of Ayurveda wouldn’t have flourished. Thus we can imagine that that unknowingly the ayurveda people were using the precautions against the microbial growth. The medicated decoctions that were used in the postoperative treatment by Maharishi Susruta was of antibacterial nature. In the same way the treatment for leprosy is also indicative of the
antibacterial properties of the herbs and ayurvedic medicines used. Nowadays the antibiotics are classified into various categories. The major success of the modern medicines is dependent upon the antibiotics invention. Each antibiotic is used to treat specific bacteria. In simple words that acts as antidote for the specific bacteria. The treatment is based upon the diagnosis of the microorganism causing infection.

The penicillin was the first antibiotic that was discovered in 1928 by Sir Alexander Fleming for treating the infectious caused in wounds. Further, antibiotics were refined from the penicillin and by the 1950’s a large number of antibiotics were discovered. There are a large number of antibacterial combinations that are used now days. The antibiotics can be classified upon the basis of their chemical composition as well as their mechanism of pharmacological action. Following are the some antibiotics commonly used by the practitioners. The antibiotic medicines used commonly are B-lactam antibiotics– this group contains, Penicillins (Penicillin G, Amoxicillin, Flucloxacillin) Cephalosporins (Cefoxitin, Cefotaxime) and Carbapenem (Imipenem) and their combinations. The other group is Macrolides that contains Erythromycin, Azithromycin and Clarithromycin. There is another group of tetracyclins, Fluoroquinolones, Sulphonomides, Aminoglycosides, Imidazoles, Peptides, and Lincosamides. The above mentioned antibiotics are used generally in all systemic aliments caused due to the bacterial activities. The ayurvedic medicines that are used in treating the infectious conditions are generally containing antibacterial activities. For example the Cindamycin antibiotic is used for the treatment of the serious respiratory tract infections, serious skin infections and soft tissue infections. For the serious respiratory tract infection there are ayurvedic medicines that are containing the herbs and mineral combinations as well. The rason (garlic) is found to have effects as that of Cindamycin). In the same way the combination medicine Sitopaladi Choorna is having anti tubercular action due the presence of certain drugs. Cinnamon, In the same the various combination and single drugs from the ayurveda texts are containing various antibiotic properties and are in use in spite of being the known how they work. The most famous of all as antibacterial drug from ayurveda is Neem. The herbs, which were used by Susruta for the antibiotic activity, are classified into different categories of drugs. Saalsaradi gana Lakshadi gana, and more…….

The following medicines are described into above categories. Extract of Saal, Ajakarna, Khadir, Odumbar, Supari, Bhurjapatra, Meshshringi, Tinish, Shewata Chandan, Shisham, Asan, Dhava, Arjun, Laksha, Aragvadha, Kutza, Ashvamaartawak, katphala, haridra, Nimba, Malti, Trayamana, Chukramarda, Vasa, Gaduchi, Madanphal, Vidanga, Lashun, Shrish, Jatamansi, Guggul Harenu, Vacha, Trivrita, Danti, Gairik, Anjan, Bhallatak, Lodhra, Devdaru, Sarshap, Kampillak, Arka-ksheer, Rasanjana, Kaptiharasa, Indravajava, Palshrasa, Rasana. Apart from these, there are various mineral preparations that are used for the antibacterial purpose. Some of these are Makshiaka, Gandhakayoga, Parad, Shilajit, Tutthak, Kashish, Manashila, Gairik, Anjanam, Gorochan, Suhaga, and Nilgiri tel. The madhavasava, khadirarishta, mahatikta ghrita, pancha nimbadi ghrita are some other medicines that are used as antibiotic medicines in case of infections according to ayurveda. The neem is most commonly termed as ayurvedic antibiotic. The neem tree is used in a number of ways as per the disease conditions. It has got multipurpose use from skin rashes to malaria. In the Harotkayadi varga section of drug book of ayurveda priyanighantu neem is described a great medicine for the pitta aggravations and blood purification. Neem is supposed to be a antibacterial, anti-fungal, antiviral and antiseptic drug. It used in treating anything from dandruff to acne, eczema to malaria and cold sores. All ayurvedic medicines are used in many systemic aliments and they need to be developed and tested as per the antibiotics are tested. The use of herbs and different medical decoctions can be added with the antibiotics as complementary to the medicines. Now days various single herbs are being researched in the light of modern testing parameters to establish their respective antibiotic action on different category of microbes. The haridra is used as antibiotic for skin disease for local and parental uses. In the same way there are various uses of herbs in ayurveda related text.

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