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ஆயுர்வேத மருத்துவம் :: ஆயுர்வேத மருத்துவம்-AYURVEDA -AYURVEDIC MEDICINE-இந்திய மருத்துவம் :: ஆண்மை வளர்க்கும் சிகிச்சைகள் -வாஜீகரணம் -ஆண்மை இரகசியங்கள் -RASAAYNAM & VAAJEEKARNAM :: RASAYANAM , VAAJEEKARANAM -AYURVEDIC APHRODISIAC -ENGLISH
Conceptof Rasayana Therapy
Rasayana Tantra is one of the eight major divisions of Astang Ayurveda
In Ayurveda, one of the major methods of presentation of positive health hasbeen described i.e. Rasayana
Sushruta has defined a healthy man as one who has:-
• Equilibrium of the Doshas Sama dosha.
• Normal functioning of Agni Sama Agni
• Normal condition of 7 Dhatus Sam Dhatu
• Normal Excretion of waste products Sam Malkriya.
Beside this Atma (Soul), the Indriyas or sense organs and Mana or mind shouldbe happy and cheerful Prasanatamendriya Mana (Su.Su.15/15). The current moderndefinition of health is also same “Health is a state of complete physical,mental and social well being and not merely absence of disease. (W.H.O.)
Healthy state of mind and body can be achieved by Rasayana Therapy orRejuvenation Therapy
Rasayana Stands as an answer to solve the problem of healthful longevityincluding mental development and resistance against disease. That is why;Rasayanatherapy has been included as one of the eight major divisions ofAshtang Ayurveda. Rasayana Chikitsa or rejuvenation therapy helps to promote andpreserve health and longevity in the healthy, and to Cure disease in sick. Weall want to look forever young and increase our life span by staying healthy,Rasayans or vitalizers, as they are called, do exactly the same. They replenishthe vital fluids of our body, thus keeping us away from diseases. Rasayanarefers to the nutrition and its transportation in the body. Such a state ofimproved nutrition is claimed to lead to a series of secondary attributes likelongevity, immunity against diseases, mental competence and delaying of aging.
Rasayana is actually that which increases the essence of each Dhatu, startingfrom Rasa. Taking Rasayana is helpful to increase the immunity of person tokeep him away from diseases. The person become healthy and strong .Literallythe term Rasayana refers to the means of obtaining the optimum nourishment tothe Dhatu.
Meaning of Rasayana
The word Rasayana is composed of two words Ras + Ayan. The means by which onegets the excellence of Rasa (The nourishing fluid which is produced immediatelyafter digestion) is known as Rasayana. Apart from the excellence of Rasa, theindividual is endowed with Psychic excellence like sharp memory, by virtue ofrejuvenation therapy. The term Rasayana connotes a specific meaning. Drugs, dietand regimens which promote longevity by delaying aging and preventing diseasesare called Rasayana. The term Rasa has different connotation. In the presentcontext, it means the body fluid which is responsible for nourishment of entirephysique. Impairment of circulation of this body fluid results in diseases anddecay. This body fluid of good quality should not only be present in adequatequantity, but also it should be able to permeate (circulate) throughout thevarious cells of the body to provide the type of nourishment they need.
Rasayana is a specialized type of treatment influencing the fundamental aspectof body viz. Dhatus, Agni and Srotansi and ojus etc. Rasayana Chikitsa booststheojus and immune system. The adjective Ojaswiis used to describe those peoplewho keep good health in all seasons and all stages of life. It is likeobtaining a high rank in a physical or mental fitness. Ojus gives a brightlook, sharp memory, high performance and every expected pleasure.
Historic Consideration of Rasayana
Rasayana therapy is as old as the Vedas because many references on Rasayanatherapy are available in the Atharva Veda (atharvaveda 8/7/4). Extensivedescriptions of divine Rasayana agents like Soma are available in classics.References about Achara Rasayna and Sadvrita are also available in the vedictexts similar to Charakadescription (Rig-Veda 5/1/7 and Atharvaveda 16/2/2)
Besides extensive references is available regarding the superiority of certainother common Rasayana drugs like Pippali, Jivanti and Punarnava etc. Similarlya concept of Ajasrika Rasayana also appears in vedic literature.
Vedas have seriously considered the problems of aging and its delaying. It hasbeen the cherished wish of human race to achieve long life and to live at least100 years in perfect health. “Jivema Sharadah Shatam” (Rigveda 10/39/.
Probably all these ideas at a later stage necessitated the development of afull-fledged clinical discipline like Rasayana therapy to deal with the problemof aging, its delaying.
Rasayana Chikitsa in Samhita
Charak Samhita which is considered the earliest text of this period appears tohave given extensive consideration on the subject. Charak in its section onChikitsa starts with an exhaustive chapter on Rasayana therapy dealing with thephysiological, pharmacological, therapeutic and clinical aspects of theRasayana. Charaka appears to have correlated this with the fundamentalprinciples of Ayurveda as related to the concept of Ras Samvahan, the conceptof Dhatu, the Agni, the Srotansi, the Doshas and the Dosha Prakriti. Charakahas advocated Special the outdoor and indoor regimen and he has introduced alarge number of Rasayana Drugs both the single and compounds, herbs andminerals (Ch.Chi 1/1/16). The knowledge appears to have been so much developedthat Rasayana Therapy has to be designated as one of the eight major branchesof Ayurveda. In the beginning of ChikitsaSthan Chapters on Rejuvenation therapyand Aphrodisiacs are explained. In beginning of Rasayanatherapy term Bheshjaand its Synonyms are explained (Ch.Chi.1/1/3.)
Bheshaja (Medicines) are divided into 2 types:
1. Some of them tone up the health of healthy person i.e. “Swasthasyaurjaskara(Ch.Chi.1/1/4)
2. Some of them treat the ailments of the patients “Kinchit Artasya Rognut”(Ch.Chi.1/1/4)
Medicine belonging to first category is considered to be useful for a healthyperson. There are certain natural conditions like old age, which affect even ahealthy individual. The medicine belonging to this category helps to maintainexcellent physique. Those medicines which invigorate a healthy person aremostly rejuvenators.
Another text commonly referred to Samhita period is Bhel Samhita which appearsto be a contemporary writing to Charak Samhita. This is not available incomplete form. Achara Rasayana is described in this Samhita. There is specificindication of Rasayana therapy in “Rajyakshma” in this Samhita. PippaliRasayana and Pippali Vardhman Rasyana are also described in this Samhita. Thetopics which are specifically described in Bhel Samhita are Rasayanas in theform of Shukra Shodhana Vasti , Rasayana Vasti.
Following Rasayanas preparations have been newly introduced by Bhel are
1. Jivakadi Rasayana Ghrita.
2. Mahasneha Rasayana
3. Shatavaryadi Rasayana Vasti.
4. Pancha mulyadi Rasayana.
5. Shatapaka sukumara Taila.
In Bhel Samhita there is no independent chapter on Rasayana Therapy. In BhelSamhita Rasayana is described in chapter naming “Dirghayushyopaya”. The conceptare similar to these described by Charaka.
Sushruta Samhita is next important text of Ayurveda. A critical study of thistext in reference to Rasayana Therapy was almost same as described by Charaka.But the way of description of Rasayana in Sushruta Samhita is somethingdifferent. Sushruta has omitted the philosophical aspects of subject and hasgiven lesser importance to the physiological concepts. Sushruta has not givenmuch importance to specialized regimen of Rasayana Therapy like Vatatpika andKutipraveshika procedure ofCharaka. However, he has advocated the use of Aharafor Rasayana treatment similar to vranitagara described for the use of thewounded persons in a different context. Dalhana Considered this context comparableto Charka’s Kutipraveshika Procedure .The most important contribution ofSushruta and the great commentatorDalhana to the development of Rasayanatherapy is the classification of Rasayana(Su.Su.1/10 Dalhana). They describedthat Rasayana therapy have two aspects:
1. Kamya Rasayana For healthy Person.
2. Naimitiika Rasayana For diseased person.
Sushruta has introduced a number of newer Rasayana drugs which have not beenmentioned earlier in Samhitalike Charaka Samhita and Bhel Samhita.
Some drugs are
• Varahi Kanda
• Gambhari Phala
Some compound drugs are
• Shweta Vakuchi Rasayana Yoga.
• Krishan Vakuchi Rasayana Yoga
• Vacha Rasayana Yoga
• Rasayana Shatpaka Vachagharita
• Ayuvardhaka Rasayana
• Nilotpala Kwath Rasayana
• Vasa taila Rasayana Yoga.
• Rasayana Samartyaprad Yoga
• Daridrya Nashak Rasayan Yoga
• Yavadi Yog.
Certain drugs like Vidanga, Kashmari, Vacha, Brahmi, and the 24 types of somasare described (Su.Chi.27/5-. But certain drugs like Amalaki, Pippalli, andShankhapushpi have found priority consideration in Charaka Samhita but notdescribed in Sushruta Samhita
The other contemporary Samhita is the Kashyapa Samhita; this book is not availablein complete form. However, the available Samhita does not show any separatedescription of Rasayana Therapy, of course there is scattered description ofRasayana therapy in different context. Similar to Bhel Samhita Rasayana therapyis specifically indicated in management of Rajyakshma. It has been indicated incases of Kshaya and in Kshina.
Special drugs described by Kashyapa samhita are the following:
• Shatpushpa Kalpa
• Lashuna Kalp
• Madhu - Sharkara Yoga
There is description of different types of Kshira and Mansa has been described.Nagbala, Mandukparni, Yashtimadhu, Brahmi, Rasona has been specially indicatedin the treatment of Rajyakshama. While describing the properties ofShatapushpa, shatawari and Lashun Kalp, Kashyapa touch the concepts ofVrinhana, Balkara, Vrishya, Varna-Ojovardhana, Ayushya, Samriti Medha Vardhna& Vayasthapana effects of Rasayana therapy. Kashyapa also suggest PoorvaKarma for Rasayana therapy.
The two later texts written by Vagbhatta namely Ashtanga Sangraha and AshtangHridaya appear to have largely adopted Charaka Samhita. Of course some newerdrugs have been introduced in this text. Concepts of Achara Rasayana, VatatpikaRasayana and kuti Praveshika Rasayana are similar to Charak Samhita. Onedistinct observation made by Vagabhattaregarding the age factor in selection ofsubjects for the use of Rasayana therapy is indicated in younger or middle agegroups. No such emphasis has been put on the use of Rasayana therapy in youngerage groups in earlier texts. Vagbhatta has also indicated the Poorvakarmabefore the administration of Rasayana drugs.
Chakradutta has emphasized the role of Sanshodhana therapy as a Poorvakarma forRasayana therapy. He has also described popular Rasayana drugs likeChyavnaprash, Bhallataka yoga, Vardhmaan Pippali Rasayana, Agastya Haritaki,Vyaghri Haritaki and Loh Rasayana etc. He has described the special use ofHaritaki in various seasons under the term Ritu Haritaki .Chakrdutta hasdescribed certain minerals like Loha, Shilajatu, Swarna, Rajat and Tamra.Chakradutta has also described use of Rasayana Drugs In younger and middle agegroups.
Sharangadhara Samhita is a text mainly dealing with Kayachikitsa. SharangadharaSamhita does not show a separate chapter on Rasayana therapy though essentialinformation about Rasayana therapy is available in the text. The mostsignificant description available in Sharangadhara Samhita on this subject isthe definition of Rasayana:
Thus Sharangadhara conceived Rasayana as measures which may delay aging andprevent diseases and thus may maintain the positive health. The classicalsingle Rasayana drugs described as Rasayana by Sharangadhara are:
Beside a number of Rasayana compounds have been described by Sharangdhara suchas :
• Louha Rasayana
• Kamdeo Ghrita
• Kaishora Guggulu
• Yogaraj Guggulu
• Agastyaharitaki Avaleha
This book contributes a small but full-fledged independent chapter on Rasayanawhere one finds comprehensive definition of Rasayana and a number ofRasayanadrugs and preparations. BavaPrakash defines Rasayana as a measure whichmay delay aging and prevent disease. Longevity and improvement in mentalfaculties have been claimed as the classical Rasayana effects. Rasayana drugslike Mandukparni Punarnava, Ashwagandha and guggulu and Haritaki have beengiven special emphasis. However, a review of BhavaPrakash does not show mentionof Acharya Rasayana. There is no description of the Classifications ofRasayana. There is no description of the administrative procedure of Rasayanatherapy but there is genuine emphasis on the role of samshodhana Karma as aPoorvakarma of RasayanaTherapy.
It is being a text purely dealing with the clinical and diagnostic medicine. Itis not concerned with therapeutics and therapeutic procedures and accordinglythere is no description of Rasayana therapy in this text.
In this text there is full separate chapter on Rasayana. The definition ofRasayana is same as described by Charaka. There is a description of MadhyaRasayana in this text. Jala, Dugdha, Madhu, and Ghrita have been indicated asRasayana and special description on Haritaki is presented. There is also adescription of Vardhamana Bhallataka Prayoga.
Classical Concepts about practice of Rasayana therapy
Rasayana therapy is not a simple drug therapy but is a specialized therapeuticprocedure implicating the fundamental concept of
It may leading to Comprehensive clinical effects designated as Vaya Sthapana,Ayushkara, Medhakara, Balakara and Jara Vyadhi Nashana effects.In conformitywith this comprehensive effect the practice of Rasayana therapy has beenadvocated to involve a number of specific considerations like.
• Vaya (Age)
• Satmya (Biological adaptability to Desha/Kala/Ritu.)
• Dhatus (Tissue and tissue nutrition.)
• Srotasa (Microcirculation)
• Agni (Digestive and metabolic factors)
• Ojus (Vitality)
In addition during Rasayana therapy a person desirous of optimum effects shouldconsume a suitable regime of diet and should follow a suitable code ofpsychosocial conduct as prescribed under Achara Rasayana.
Consideration of Prakriti
Rasayana drugs are administered to person according to constitution orPrakriti. This has to be determined in view of the basic Pharmacodynamicproperties of a particular Rasayana Drugs e.g. Bhallataka, Rasona, Guggulu andPippali may be suitable Rasayana drugs for a person of Kaphaja Prakriti becausethese drugs have antiKapha Pharmacodynamic properties such as Ushana Veerya,Katu & Kashaya Rasa, Ruksha & Laghu Gunas. On the other hand drugs likeAmalaki and Shatawari may be best Rasayana drugs for a person of PaittikaPrakriti probably due to their Sheeta Veerya and other Pharmacodynamicproperties. Through Prakriti described in Ayurvedais subtotal of the physique,Physiology and Psyche of a particular persons; Vatika Prakriti is speciallypredominated by neuropsychological components. In view of this fact anappropriate Rasayana Drugs for a person of Vatika Prakriti should be such whichmay have the restorative effects on the mind and the body. In present reference,Vacha, Nagabala and similar other drugs may be ideal Rasayana for a person ofVatika Prakriti. Similarly Ashwagandha and Shankhpushpi may prove useful forsuch persons from mental point of view.
Consideration of Vaya (Age)
In spite of the fact that Rasayana therapy exhibits the anti aging effects likeVaya Sthapna, Ayushkara and Jara Nashak the maximum utility of Rasayana therapycan be obtained when used during early adult and middle age life i.e. 3rd to5th decades as suggested by Sushruta and Vagbhatta
Once there was irreversible aging changes the Rasayana may not be adequatelyeffective. Thus early adult and middle age is the best period for Rasayanatherapy.
In this reference Sharangadhara describes that a person loses his
in 1st ,2nd ,3rd ,4th ,5th, 6th ,7th, 8th, 9th,and 10th decades of liferespectively.In relation to these features specific Rasayana drugs may beselected and administered in respective age groups. A study done by centralcouncil for Research in Indian medicine & Homeopathy New Delhi held at IMSBHU Suggests fallowing Schedule as regard to the Consideration of Vaya or agein Rasayana Therapy.
Study of Udupa K.N. and Singh R.S. (1995) Shows a guidance
Regarding use of Rasayana Drugs for different age groups
Age group Desired effect Suitable Rasayana Drug
1- 10 Balya
Vacha, Swarna, Kashmari
11-20 Briddhi Ashwagandha, Bala.
21-30 Chhavi Louha, Amalaki.
31-40 Medha Jyotishmati, Shankhpushpi
41-50 Twak Bhringaraja, Priyalu, Somraji
51-60 Drishti Triphala, Saptamrita Lauha
61-70 Shukra Atamgupta & Vajikarna Drug
Drugs may not effective**.
91- Above Karmendriya
Consideration of Satmaya
Similar to Vaya and Prakriti, the Rasayana therapy demands a consideration ofthe Satmaya (Adaptability) in Ayurveda. Broadly one may need different Rasayanadrugs in different Ritu or seasons and different Desha or climates. Here againthe Pharmacodynamic properties of different Rasayana Drugs have to be takeninto the consideration. Following table shows a list of suitable Rasayana drugsto be used in different Ritu or seasons..
Similarly in consideration with Desha Satmaya Snigdhoshna drugs may be good forJangala Desha; Rukshoshna drugs for Anupa Desha and Sadharna drugs for SadharnaDesha and so on. In this entire context consideration of the Pharmacodynamic ofRasayana Drugs is to be implicated.
Consideration of Dhatus/ Agni/Srotamsi
Depending upon the status of different Dhatus and Dhatusara one has to selectspecific Rasayana drugs for the benefit of different specific Dhatus. This hasto be determined in consideration of Pharmacodynamic properties andPanchmahabhautika Constitution of different Dhatu and different Rasayana drugs.In view of this fact following Rasayana Drugs may be considered specific forthe respective Dhatu.
Sr. No Dhatu Rasayana Drug
1. Ras Kashmari, Kharjura, Draksha.
2. Rakta Lauhadi Rasayana, Amalaki
3. Mansa Ashwagandha, Bala,Nagabala, Kashmari
4. Meda Amrita, Haritaki
6. Majja Lauha, Vasaa, Majja
7. Shukra Vajikarna Drugs
These specific Rasayana drugs are having same composition as the respectiveDhatu. They cause Rasayana effect acting at level of Rasa by improving thespecific nutritional values of Poshaka Rasa. Drugs are having effect at levelof Agni or digestion, metabolism and at level of Srotansi or microcirculation.Drugs acting at level of Srotansi are Pippali, Guggulu, Rasona, and Bhallataka.Drugs activity at the level of Agni for Producing Rasayana effects are Pippali,Chitraka, Vidang.
Consideration of Ojus
It is saaransh of all Dhatus which are supposed to induce Bala, Vyadhikshamatvaor immunity. Jivaniya classes of drugs, Yashtimadhu, Swarna are of classes ofdrugs which improves quality of ojus. Similarly improvement in mental facultiesor medhakara effect is also achieved with Rasayana therapy. But certainspecific Rasayana appear to have specific effect at this level (MedhyaRasayana). That is the reason why our classics have given priority to MedhyaRasayana such as Shankhpushpi, Jyotishmati, Brahmi etc. (Ch. Chi. ) thusRasayana therapy has a very comprehensive basis.
Classification of Rasayana
Classification of Rasayana by Sharma A.K. and Singh R.H. 1992
Rasayana is Primarly divided in to two types :-
• Dravyabhuta Rasayana
• Adravyabhutas Rasayana ( Achara Rasayana)
(A) As per method of use (Chraraka)
• Kuti Praveshika (in door use)
• Vatatapika (out door use)
(B) As per Scope of use
• Kamya Rasayana (Promotor of normal health )
1. Prana Kamya (Promotes Longevity)
2. Medha Kamya (Improves mental faculties)
3. Shri Kamya (Improves lustre of body)
• Naimittika Rasayana
• Ajasrika Rasayana
(C) As per content of Rasayana
• Ausadha RasayanaDietary Rasayana
• Achara RasayanaConduct of Rasayana
(D) Specific Rasayana drugs and measures
• Medhya Rasayana
• Achara Rasayana
1. Buddhi Medha Vardhaka
2. Ayu Vardhaka
(E) According to Prabhava (Effect)
• Samshodhana Rasayana
• Samshamana Rasayana
(F) According to Satmya :-
• Ritu Satmya
1. Aadana kala
2. Visarga Kala
• Desh Satmya
1. Sadharana Desha
2. Jangala Desha
3. Anupa Desha
(G) According to Sapta Dhatus
(H) Classfication According to Modern Medical Science :-
• To Promote Immunity
• To improve metabolism
• To improve endocrine and exocrine secretions
Thus type of Rasayana is administered in cottage constructed at a good site andwhere the required appliances can easily be procured. The cottage is threewalled(Trigarbha Kutti). In a favorable Muhoorta, a person desirous ofundergoing rejuvenation therapy should enter into the cottage. That individualshould than be cleansed by the administration of elimination therapy.Thereafter, when he is happy and has regained his strength, the rejuvenationtherapy should be administered. After administration of elimination therapy,normally the patient becomes a little weak. Therefore, proper diet (Sansarjanakarma) should be given to patient by this he will regain his strength. (Ch.Chi. 1/1/17-23)
It is not administered in Trigarbha Kutti. It can be administered even if theindividual is exposed to the wind and sun hence called Vatatpika Rasayana.
The most significant contribution of sushruta to Rasayana Vigyana is thecomprehensive classification presented in the text which has been furtherappropriated by the great commentator “Dalhana” the text of Sushruta Samhitaand the Dalhana’s commentary light the concept that Rasayana therapy may havetwo aspects:
• Kamya Rasayana :
To be used for improvement of health and vigor in normal state
• Naimitika Rasayana :
To be used in person suffering from specific disease.
Kamya means desire. The Rasayana used for achieving a specific desire is calledKamya Rasayana. It is further divided into Prana Kamya, Medha Kamya, Shri Kamyaused in the healthy persons for promotion of Medha, Pran, Shri NaimitiikaRasayana
Naimitika Rasayana is to be used in person suffering from specific disease.This Rasayana is used as adjuvant along with treatment for specific ailments.Naimitika Rasayana is of more practical significance. Naimitika Rasayana is notthe specific medical treatment for particular diseases, but it is used asadjuvant along with the specific management of disease e.g. Ashwagandha Churna,Ashwagandharishta is indicated in the treatment of tuberculosis (Su. U.41/42-43)
Following table gives a list of popular Naimitika Rasayana
Sr. No. Disease Drugs
1. Drishti Mandya Triphala, Shatawari Jyotishmati,Yashtimadhu.
2. Kushtha Bhallataka Rasayana, Tuvaraka,Vidanga
3. Rajyakshama Ashwagandha, Pippali, Shilajatu, Nagabala
4. Shwasa Agastya Rasayana, Bhallataka
5. Prameha Shilajatu, Amalaki, Rasayana, Haridra
6. Pandu Amalaki Rasayana Lauha Rasayana
7. Vata Vyadhi Rasona, Guggulu, vacha, Nagabala.
Ajasrika Rasayana can be used daily as diet Dugdha, Ghrita are commonlyRasayana.
Sanshodhana Rasayana/ Sanshamana Rasayana
The Rasayana Drugs which eliminate the vitiated Doshas by expelling from bodycalled Sanshodhana Rasayana. Rasayana drugs expel Doshas out of body by Vamana,Virechana, and Swedna etc. Examples of Shodnana Rasayana are Pippali,Yashtimadhu etc. There are other drugs which producing Dosh Shaman effect.These drugs are called Sanshamana Rasayana.
Medha is to have proper correlation and understanding about the knowledge ofthe existing objects. Due to Medha a person will be able to obtain theknowledge of existing object and hence person becomes learned. Majority ofMedhya Rasayana drugs possess varied properties. Hence it appears difficult toexplain the effect of all the Medhya drugs.
Nagarjuna has mentioned that Medhya drugs mainly act by their Achintya Veeryai.e. Prabhava. The effect of Medhya Rasayana is also at different levels suchas at level ofRasa, Agni, and Srotsa. At the level of Agni these drug act bystimulating and improving the function of Agni. At level of Srotsa, these drugsimprove the circulation ofRasa by opening and cleaning the micro channel andthen ultimately improve the function of Medha. These drugs have beneficialeffect on body as well as on mind. Various Medhya Rasayana drugs used areMandukparni Svarasa, Shankhpushpi Kalka, Guduchi Svarasa and Mulethi Churna.These Medhya Rasayana are described in Charaka Samhita. Some of the Rasayanadrugs act by Panchbhautika composition, Some by Rasa, Guna Veerya, and Vipaka.Pharmacological properties of drugs are the resultant of different combinationof Bhoota. Panchamahabhoot are said to have characteristic of three MahagunaSatva, Raja, and Tama. Medha are attributed to predominance ofSatva Guna, HenceAakashiya, Taijus, Aapya drugs having Satva guna predominance improve Medha. Onthe basis of Rasa Tikta Rasa has direct action on the promotion of Medha. Itperforms their function by its Laghu property and Deepana-Paachana andSrotoshodhaka action. Madhura Rasa also by promoting the formation ofOjanourishes five sense, mind and medha. Hence Medhya Rasayana Drugs appear tobe predominantly Tikta-Madhura Rasa. Amla, Lavana and Katu Rasa are havingleast importance in Medhya action. Similarly Ushana Veerya drugs stimulateSaadhak Pitta which promotes Medha. Ushana Veerya drugs improve Grahan Shakti(power of reception) and Samriti (Power of recalling). Majority of drugs arehaving Madhura Vipaka which nourishes Medha by formation of Oja. So all theMedhya Rasayana drugs improve mental faculties, improve mental function and intellect.
Achara Rasayana is described in various texts. It means good conduct. A carefulanalysis of qualities of Achara Rasayana reveal that most of them are relatedwithMana, Dhi, Dhriti along with good conduct and these results in maximum benefit.A person must be truthful, free from anger, which is devoid of alcohol, sexindulgence; a person must not indulge in violence or exhaustion. A person mayregularly offer prayers to Gods, Teachers, Preceptors and old people. A personmust be absolutely free from barbarous acts, his period of awakening and sleepis regular, must take milk and Ghee regularly, should be free from ego, Whoseconduct is good, must not be narrow minded, Should have love for spiritualKnowledge, must have excellent sense organ, having self control, who regularlyread scripture, must have regard for elderly people, must take milk and Gheeregularly. If a person endowed with these qualities takes rejuvenation therapythey get all the rejuvenation benefit. (Ch. Chi. 1/4/30-35)
Benefit of Rasayana
A persons undergoing rejuvenation therapy attains longevity, memory, intellect,freedom from disease, youth, excellence of lusture, complexion, voice,excellent potentialities of the body and sense organs i.e. what he says comestrue, respect and brilliance. The means by which one gets the excellence ofRasa is known as Rasayana or a Rejuvenation therapy. A part from excellence ofRasa, the individual is endowed with psychic excellence like sharp memory etc.by virtue of rejuvenation therapy.
Aim of Rasayana therapy is to achieve long and healthy life
Rasayana Chikitsa boosts the ojus (vital force of life) and immune System. Ithelps a person to maintain good health or to establish impaired or lostphysical or mental health. Ojaswi is used to describe those people who keepgood health in all seasons and all stages of life. It is like obtaining highrank in a physical or mental fitness. Ojus gives a bright look, sharp memory,high performance and every expected pleasure.
Rasayana Chikitsa is supposed to nourish blood, lymph, flesh, adipose tissueand semen, and thus prevent freedom from chronic degenerative disorders likeArthritis and disease of senility.
Rasayana is though to improve metabolic processes which results in bestpossible biotransformation and produce the best quality bodily tissue and delaysenility and prevent other diseases of old age.
Rasayana which has a marked action on sexual organs are called Vrishya asShukra Dhatu is best nourished by it.
Rasayana builds natural resistance against infection.
Rasayana drugs invigorate the body in general by sustaining the requiredbalance between anabolism and Catabolism.
Rasayana drugs which may acts as Antioxidants as well as Immunomodulator mayalso act as antiaging.
Mode of Action of Rasayana Drugs
Rasayana drugs are used for preservation of positive health. Sushruta defines ahealthy man as one who has equilibrium of Doshas, normal functioning of Agni,normal condition of seven Dhatus, beside his soul, the sense organs and mindshould be happy and cheerful (Su. Su.15/15) Rasayana stands as an answer tosolve the problem of healthful longevity including mental development andresistance against disease. Rasayana is a specialized type of treatment influencingthe fundamental aspect of body i.e. Dhatu, Agni and Srotasa. It is a possiblethat different Rasayana drugs may act with predominance effect at differentlevels. These comprehensive effects are brought about with the help of thevaried Pharmacodynamic properties of these drugs. Rasayana effect is not aspecific pharmacological action but is a complex phenomenon operating through aComprehensive mechanism involving the fundamental factors like Rasa-Samvahan,Dhatus, Agni and Srotsa. It may ultimately be leading to the achievement of thecomprehensive effect as stated by Charaka “labhopayo Hi Shastanam - RasadinamRasayanum” (Ch. Chi. 1/1/7-
It produces the Rasayana effects mentioned in term of Vayasthapana andAyushkara, Medhakara, Urjaskara so that Rasayana drugs acting at level of Rasaby improving Specific nutritional values of Poshak Rasa. Probably Rasayanadrugs are having Madhura, Guru, Snigdha, and Sheeta properties act as Rasayanaat level of Rasa by promoting the nutritional value of the Rasa which in termhelps in obtaining the best qualities of Dhatus. The example of such drugs maybe Shatawari, Madhuyashti,Bala, Dugdha, Ghrita etc. Rasayana drugs have afundamental effect at level of Agni or digestion and metabolism. The Rasayanadrugs possessing the Ushana, Laghu, Ruksha and Katu, Tikta, Kashaya Rasa may beacting at level of Agni, Vitalizing the organic metabolism leading to animproved structural and function pattern ofDhatus and Production of theRasayana effects. Drugs such as Pippali, Guggulu, Rasona, Bhallataka, Rudantimainly acts at level of Agni so improve the digestion and create excellence ofSaptdhatu. The Rasayana Drugs like Vidang, Chitraka, and Haritaki areexperienced to enhance Agni at level of Jaathragni. Similarly Amalaki, Amrita,Pippali, Kumari are supposed to act at level of Dhatu, Agni also causingexcellence of all Dhatus.
The Rasayana drugs with Katu, Tikta, Kashaya Rasa, Vishada, Ruksha, Laghu Guna,Ushana Veerya and Katu Vipaka may cause Srotoshodhana and may help in theevaluation of the Rasayana effect in the body. Rasayana drugs which influenceoja are supposed to induce Bala and Vyadhiksamatava or Immunity. Drugs used areJivaniya Ganadrugs, Swarna and Pippali. Similarly improvement in mental faculty(Medhakara effect) is a benefit of Rasayana Therapy
Modern Aspect of Rasayana Therapy
Rasayana Chikitsa means rejuvenation therapy. Rejuvenation literally means toreturn to youthful conditions or to the normal from diseased state.Rejuvenation therapy helps to promote and preserve health and to Cure diseasein sick. The therapy enhances one’s energy and is even known to have cured thesick. It also increases a healthy person’s mental and physical capabilities. Itis known to have improved skin complexion and texture, modulates the voice andincreases sensing capacity of sense organs. They replenish the vital fluids ofour body thus keeping us away from diseases. Taking Rasayana is helpful toincrease the immunity of the person to keep him away from diseases. The personbecame healthy and strong. Some of Benefits of rejuvenation therapy are asfollows:
• Long life
• Increase in memory power
• Good health
• Young looks
• Glowing skin
• Modulated voice
• Resistance to disease
The possible mechanisms by which action of Rasayana can be interpreted withmodern aspects is follow :
1. Antioxidant action
2. Immunomodulatory action
3. Hemopiotic effect.
4. Adaptogenic action
5. Antiaging action.
6. Anabolic action
7. Nutritive function
8. Neuroprotective action
Rasayana drugs acts as Antioxidants. Antioxidants are substances that reduceoxidative damage such as that caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highlyreactive chemicals that attack molecules by capturing the electrons and thusmodifying chemical structures. Well known Antioxidants include a number ofenzymes and other substances such as vitamin C, Vitamin E and beta carotene(which is converted to vitamin A) that are capable of counteracting thedamaging effect of oxidation. Antioxidants are also commonly added to foodproducts like vegetable oils and prepared foods
Researches show that Antioxidants are useful for protection of heart disease.This is because oxidation plays a big role in formation atherosclerotic plaquewhich is a main Pathological event in coronary heart disease. So there issignificant role of antioxidant in coronary heart disease. Antioxidants arehaving role in preventing diabetes mellitus. Antioxidant rich diet may preventDiabetes. Taking Antioxidants rich food especially vitamin E, may lower risk ofType II DM. A new study show that people whose diets had the highest levelsvitamin E were 30% less likely to develop type II DM. In addition, researchersfound that people who ate a lot of carotenoids, a type of antioxidant found incolorful fruits and vegetables, also had a lower risk of developing type II DM.Oxidative damage to cells is also important phenomenon in aging process. SoAntioxidants are also helpful in delaying aging. Antioxidants may possiblyreduce the risk of cancer and age related macular degeneration. Many Rasayanadrugs like Amla, Ashwagandha acts are Antioxidants. Main constituents of Amlaare vitamin C, carotene, and riboflavin. It is having a role in cellularoxidation reduction. They have also a role in collagen fibrin synthesis, helpsin formation at fibrin, Absorption of iron. Withanolide in Ashwagandhaalso actsas Antioxidants by increasing levels of three natural Antioxidants like superoxide- dismutase, Catalase, Glutathione peroxidase
Rasayana drugs also acts as immunomodulator. An immunomodulator is a drug usedfor its effect on the immune system. Clinical problems that require anevaluation of immunity include chronic infections, recurrent infection, unusualinfecting agents and certain autoimmune syndromes. The type of Clinicalsyndrome under evaluation can provide information regarding possible immunedefects
Certain Rasayana drugs at as Immunomodulator strengthening of immunity is donein various ways - by promoting bodily defense Mechanisms like increasing theWBC count, improving immune function. Bodily defense mechanism is promoted.Certain Rasayana drugs also increase number of immune cells known as T cells& B cells helping to fight infections.
Aging is progressive change related to passage of time. By age 50-60 agerelated changes to begin to reflect like reduced power of muscle, reducedvision, memory, locomotion function, there is gradual decline in homeostasisand immune function predisposes them to infection, digestive problem andmalignancy.
Free radicals cause oxidative damage to various biological molecules e.g.hydroxyl radicals can damage cell membrane and lipoproteins by a process calledlipid peroxidation which may contribute to aging process. Certain Rasayanadrugs likes Ashwagandha inhibits copper induced lipid peroxidation and alsoinhibits oxidative protein modification. Rasayana also acts as Antioxidants sothey help in delaying Aging.
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