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    Introduction of panchkarma

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    Introduction of panchkarma  Empty Introduction of panchkarma

    Post by Admin Sat 06 Nov 2010, 8:13 pm

    Introduction of panchkarma

    As mentioned earlier, term panchkarma literally means five procedures. These are efined in two ways:-Charak includes the following five operations or procedures in panchkarma

    Nasya karma: it is popularly known as shiroveraechan. Nasya is the administration of medicine either in theliquid or in the powder forms into the nostrils. Its main function is to purify the nasal passage and relieves the congestion in the cranial region. In fact, the administration of nasya karma is considered as a purgative to the head as the term shiroveraechan literally implies.

    Vaman karma: according to ayurveda, definitions say that it is the procedure in which aggravated doshas ofthe body are expelled out of the body by oral canal. Vaman or administration of emetics is one of the procedures by which Shodhana (cleansing) of the body is being done. The aim and the objective of performing Vaman karma are different from and more comprehensive than those of administration emetics. It is widely used in eradicating disorders caused by kapha dosha.

    Virechan karma: it’s the procedure by which aggravated or imbalanced doshas are expelled out of the body through anal region. Virechan means purgative. This is chiefly in disorders caused due to pitta dosha. It helps in cleansing the body from doshas thus helping in providing stability and homeostasis in the body. Nirooh vasti karma: nirooh vasti is commonly known as astthapan vasti. It includes the administration of certain decoctions of specific herbs as enemata for the chief purpose of cleaning the intestine. It is widely used in intestinal colic due to irregular eristalsis (udaavartham) and in constipation (vibhandh).

    Anuvasan vasti karma: this is also called Snehan vasti. It helps in brimhana trengthening) of the body hence provides power to the body organs. This is administration of enemata, which is prepared whole solely in oils there fore helps in toning up of organs. Besides cleansing purpose it also helps in relieving disorders caused by vata dosha.

    Karma in normal terminology means special operations or procedure. The word karma means special act whose main purpose is to expel out the vitiated doshas thus helping in cleaning the body. As understood by name panch karma is five in numbers in which four are Shodhana karma i.e. helps in cleaning the body. These are Vaman, virechan, nasya, and nirooh vasti. There main purpose is to purify body or eliminating the aggravated doshas (vata, pitta and kapha) out of the body or subduing them, there fore they are classified into Langahan karma. The one left is anuvasan vasti which is considers as growth promoter and toner thus helps in lubricating and toning muscles and organs often body. Therefore it is characterized into samana karma, a soothing treatment: although its main purpose is also to eliminate or check a premier dosha i.e. vata hence included in brimhana chikitsa (treatment). Rakta mokshana as a panchkarma

    Maharishi Charak has mentioned the above mentioned five karmas but Maharishi Sushurut has considered rakta mokshana karma in panchkarma therapy and has included anuvasan vasti and nirooh vasti under vasti karma. Rakta mokshana commonly signifies to venesection or blood letting, to treat disorders caused by aggravated doshas. Maharishi Vagabhatta has accepted and supported this view as mentioned in ashtang hridayam. One thing is worth mentioning here that Maharishi sushurut has considered four doshas instead of three i.e. vata, pitta, kapha and rakta.

    Stambhana karma: Stambhana karma is the method of treatment by which contraction of the part of the body of the constriction of the arteries or other vessels in that part of the body or in the whole body takes place. This is the opposite of swedan karma, whose purpose is to dilate the pores and to lubricate (Snehan), to liquidate (vishyand), to soften (maardava), or to moisten (kleda) the part. Swedanam encourages perspiration. It checks sthambhan (contraction or solidification), heaviness (gauravam) and cold (sheet). The purpose of stambhana on the other hand is to check movement (sthambhayati yat gatimantham, chalam) by contracting or congealing the opening of the channels. Things used for causing stambhana. The things used for casing contraction are generally promoting slowness in movement, sheet (cold), mand (slow), soft (mridu), slakshan (glaszy), rookksh (non oily), sooksham (subtle or quickly permeating), dravya (liquid), sthir (steady) and laghu (light). Soft and cold potters earth, ice, styptic, haemostatic, constipation, anti diuretics (like opium), and anti diaphoretics (like atropine), vaso constrictors (like adrenaline) may all be included under stambhana substances.Substances which are sweet, bitter and astringent are stmabhak in action.

    Person fit for stambhana karma - Those people who have aggravated pitta and presently the same picture as of pitta dominance like buring eyes, having persistent diarrhoea and vomiting. People who are affected by poison, people who sweat excessively or people suffering from similar kind of diseases are considered fit for stambhana karma.

    Symptoms for proper stambhana treatment Following are the symptoms by which pplication of stambhana karma is recognized: -

    • The relief by the patient of all the distressing symptoms which he has been previously suffering
    • The acquisitation of strength which is easily felt by the patient who had a proper stambhana treatment
    • Symptoms of excessive stambhana treatment Following are the symptoms presented when a person is over treated by stambhana karma. black or grey discoloration of the treated part due to excessive venous congestion, necrosis or gangrene
    • Stupefaction, loss of sensation or heaviness of the part treated. hurried respiration or excitement tendency of lock jaw
    • A feeling of heaviness in heart region.


    Method of administrating panchkarma procedures Panchkarma procedures are considered to as operations, which are to be performed in a sequence designed by ancient rishis and physicians. A pattern as followed by modern surgeons has been taken from ayurvedic medicinal system. It includes three steps. These are:

    • Purva karma or the pre-operative procedure
    • Pradhan karma or the main procedure
    • Paschat karma or the post-operative care

    It is very essential that panchkarma procedures are to be followed in proper sequence and an expert guidance is extremely essential as even little bit of carelessness and ignorance in performing the procedures can lead to extreme effects on body. One should also be ery cautions in following the pre-operative and post-operative procedures for very good results.

    A. Purvakarmas or the pre-operative procedures Purva karma means procedures of the karmas which are to be performed before starting with the main procedure. It can be included in the prior preparation of the main procedures which includes preparing patient mentally and physically for the main procedure. It includes three procedures. These are.
    • Pachan karma
    • Snehan karma
    • Swedan karma

    B. Pradhan karma or the main procedure It includes the main treatment to be given to the patient. It is most essential step in curing the patients from the disease. It includes all the panchkarma procedures. These are:
    • Vaman karma
    • Virechan karma
    • Vasti karma
    • Shiroveraechan karma
    • Rakta mokshana

    C. Paschat karma or the post-operative care Post operative care is one in which certain precautions are to be taken to get the full benefit of the main procedure. It also includes management and maintenance after recovery period by lifestyle management and diet management or by giving some herbal supplements. These includes following procedures.
    • sansarjan karma
    • rasayan adi prayogam
    • shaman chikitsa


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